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Feminism, Sexism and Music Videos - a survey

Feminism, Sexism and Music Videos - a survey

Promonews - 15th July 2015

• Considering the backlash against the Robin Thicke's Blurred Lines video, and videos by Miley Cyrus in 2013, do you think that artists, labels and music video creators have become more aware of feminist issues?

Caroline Clayton: I'd like to think so. I feel like electronic music videos have changed massively from the mid 2000s up until now. If you look at the current big dance acts like Rudimental, Duke Dumont, Disclosure, Chase & Status vs. the Benny Benassi, Eric Prydz videos of back in the day they are chalk and cheese. Dance videos nowadays are much more clever and funny vs just lots of tits and ass. I do feel like a large portion of the female pop arena and a lot of hiphop and rap videos still have a long way to go.

Kim Jarrett: I definitely think people are a lot more wary of the context of videos these days. Personally I think people have always been conscious of their approach, but the reason the backlash of those videos were so prevalent were because we had Miley Cyrus, a Disney star who turned her image on it’s head. It was shocking for someone of her stature to create a bold vision with Diane Martel, that people perhaps weren’t ready for [in relation to ‘We Can’t Stop’]. ‘Wrecking Ball’ came at a time where Terry Richardson was facing a lot of heat and again adding to this new juxtaposed Miley Cyrus image. Robin Thicke an artist that had a lot of personal allegations surrounding him at the time, which didn’t help the videos output or the lyrics of the song. If he didn’t have those allegations would we be reacting to the video in the same way? I’m not so sure we would. People have filmed and sang far worse in music videos and yet have not been in the spotlight for it.

Unfortunately sex is found to be controversial and society has made it as such that sex sells and therefore videos of this nature have been made for years. I don’t think that’s a valid excuse in the slightest or something that we should lazily go with, but reconfiguring the populations hard-wiring into how they consume these videos is going to take a long time to change I feel.

Liz Kessler: But the backlash wasn’t about feminism, but about the sexism that was on display.  While naked bodies make money, they will be continued to be used to sell things.


Juliette Larthe: I think the two artists present two different views:

Obviously Miley whoever directs her music videos and however she is portrayed in them and whatever she may say to the contrary is first and foremost a feminist since she defines equal social, economic, cultural rights for women however we want to look at it.


Natalia Maus: I don’t think the backlash or the age ratings have really made any difference. I think this is because we have a bit of a narrow-minded view on what is misogynistic – a bare bum or exposed boobs don’t necessarily demean women - the way they are portrayed with regards to the male/female dynamic within a video needs at least the same amount of debate as the amount of flesh exposed and I don’t think we are fully there yet. 

• Do we now have a climate that makes those kinds of videos are more unacceptable? And if so, is it for cultural reasons, or due to government pressure?

Fran Broadhurst: Sadly, I don’t think videos like Wrecking Ball and Blurred Lines have changed the climate very much at all.  Although we may take issue with them, I think there’ll always be a small number of videos made for the sake of controversy.  And in fact, deliberately provocative videos like these aren't even the real problem for me – what seems more dangerous, are the everyday examples of casual and constant over sexualisation of female artists that slip under the radar - silently reinforcing an expectation for how women should present themselves, in a way that remains unchallenged.

Caroline Clayton: The internet and social media has helped a lot. Twitter, Facebook, Instagram and other social media means that everyone can get their voice heard. I don't feel like the government warnings make a huge amount of difference - slapping a warning on something often makes it seem 'cool' or 'edgy'. It's more the tastemakers voices on the internet that teenagers and young adults are going to listen to. It does feel like there is a cultural shift away from derogatory music videos within most musical genres.

Danielle Hinde: Sex for the sake of sex in music videos is something that's as old as the medium and not a unique phenomenon of today. It's just the lines of acceptability that have changed.  However, I do think each generation is appalled by the next.  Everyone was so offended by Janet Jackson and Madonna videos in the 90’s and they look like Sesame Street compared to some of the videos that are out now. The difference is those videos had a reason for the sexuality, whether to tell a narrative or for political/cultural commentary through controversy.  Some of the over-sexualized videos today don’t seem to have any other agenda other than gratuitously showing a lot of skin and helping drive their view counts up.  I think artists like Nicki and Miley are actually very smart and progressive with their sexual politics, similar in some ways to how Madonna and Janet were in their hay day.

LK: Definitely NOTHING to do with government.   There is a lovely re-birth of feminism, the 4th wave and this generation is making it their own.

NM: From reading YouTube comments I do feel like the audience is less accepting of videos that portray women in a demeaning way (or at least people are piping up about it more). I would say that any progress made in this area would come purely from culture, because the medium itself is one of the most quintessential forms of popular culture, in its content and the way it is consumed - mostly online. Trying to police online content like the government have attempted to do, by sticking age ratings on videos, seems completely futile!

• What signs of ‘progress’ in the way women are portrayed in music videos, if any, have you noticed in the past year or so on this issue?

Caroline Clayton: I'm torn here. I feel like a lot of female pop stars and girl bands still have a long way to go, particularly in the US. But equally artists like Lorde, Laura Mvula, MØ, Florence and Janelle Monae have all had success as powerful independent women who don't need to flaunt their sexual desirability in order to have commercial success. 

Faux feminism from artists like Megan Trainor troubles me. She obviously had huge success with All About That Bass, its great that she is telling people you don't have to be a size zero, however, she's also in the same breath saying it's not cool to be skinny which is unfair to women who are naturally born that way. She also then follows up with something which to me feels very unprogressive in 'Dear Future Husband' it's actually quite dangerous seeing as she has been positioned as a powerful female feminist voice to young girls to then be saying you have to get married. It's also unfair to men - why should they be expected to live up to their traditional chivalric roles if we are wanting womens roles in society to be progressive?

Alexa Haywood: I've gone around in circles on this and just sound like a dork…There are so many examples of overtly sexual artists vs strong women role models and think the argument is about the women that don't have the power to choose - I can imagine Nicki or Rhianna being told what to do as much as I can't see Florence doing anything she doesn't want to so I feel that it has come down to personal choice more so than industry choice…..BUT saying that is the industry making them feel they have to bare themselves? Rhiannas been naked and also been covered up in huge oversized denim……Florence has been sultry crawling around the floor but wearing a masculine suit and it was choreography so for every pro I have a con and for every negative I have a positive - I feel that music represents so many different genres of women its hard to put it in a feminism nutshell…

haven't even touched on the likes of Pussy Riot, Sonic Youth, and the other counter version Iggy Azelea, Jungle Pussy, Lee Mazin etc..


LK: There have always been great women in music and if you go backwards, you’ll see that while you have addicted to love on one side, you’ve got annie lennox on the other… Cool chicks are crucial in music and we’ve got more of them than ever.  Sexually provocative women are not necessarily anti-feminist at all, far from it. Progress is never a straight line, it weaves…

NM: I don't see any real evidence, that I could back up, of any progress in the way women are portrayed in music videos. I think the issue itself has been a hot topic which in turn has created a better platform for conversation and debate, but no tangible evidence of change.

• Can you give examples of more rounded female characters less dependent on their sexual desirablilty in recent music videos?

Caroline Clayton: This video for Colbie Caillat from last year was great

Kim Jarrett: I think the new videos that Florence + The Machine has done with Vincent Haycock and Eliot Sumner’s new videos prove this well. / Decca’s signing Aurora > And particularly Domino’s new signing ‘Georgia’ /

Danielle Hinde: Sia completely stopped appearing in her videos and in the media in general.  I don’t want to speak on her behalf, but I’m sure she was sick of being picked apart and judged for her looks more than her music or just didn’t want to be in the spotlight.  Her videos now are more memorable than ever and she’s completely absent. She’s created a new visual way to represent her music and it’s inspiring.  We’re now only focused on her talent.  I’m not saying women need to be invisible, but this is just an example of someone trying a different approach, and that’s progressive to me.

Fran Broadhurst: I don’t think it’s hard when you look outside the pop world to find great examples - in recent videos from both new and established artists such as Bjork; St Vincent; Laura Marling; Ibeyi; Courtney Barnett - the list feels plentiful.

But in mainstream pop, it becomes frighteningly hard to find  - Lorde perhaps, seems to have avoided the typical pop treatment, or groups like Haim whose super-cool look comes without it being particularly flesh related.

But there’s also an issue in suggesting women shouldn’t be sexually desirable in their videos, which is wrong.  Beauty and desire are always going to be mesmeric on screen, I’d just love to see more imaginative ways to capture it.  It's quite possible for women to be sexy without being objectified - take the confidence in the Warpaint - Disco video for example - it’s totally primal, but also fully clothed.

Which isn’t to say women should ‘cover up’ either - artists like FKA Twigs are doing endlessly inventive things - someone mentioned to me recently how she celebrates her physicality over her sexuality.  There's something powerful in that - encouraging women to present their bodies as objects of strength, not just soft play things.

Juliette Larthe: Why is someone more ‘rounded’ if they hide their sexuality?

LK: I could give you examples from every single year that videos have been made

NM: The MIA Bad Girls video is a good example of how both the artist and supporting female characters can look sexy and badass. MIA is great at showcasing the sexiness of women in other cultures who, although often suffer from the mysogynistic attitudes of the countries they're from, effectively challenge the western world's idea of what is sexy.

• Would you say that more female artists are more in control of their videos content than they might have been in the past?

Kim Jarrett: I think it really depends on the artist and which label they’re signed to. Some artists who are signed to certain labels have zero control on their video content, how they’re styled and their outputted image. It can be quite a sad state of affairs because it starts to become labels literally packaging people as products. I think the marketing departments have a hard time finding that line where they’re trying to sell their artists’ music but consistently weighing up at what cost and how far they go with trying to ‘sell’ them. It’s definitely worth mentioning however, that this is the case with some male artists as well.

Danielle Hinde: Depends on the artist.  Some more established artists like Katy Perry or Nicki Minaj have a strong voice in their videos while some of the newer artists may have more guidance from their labels since they’re trying to establish their brand.  That applies to all artists though, regardless of their sex.

Fran Broadhurst: From my experience labels are very respectful of what artists want, and I’d like to think that women always have a say in how they look - so the power for change lies with artists choosing how they want to be represented.

SIA’s an interesting example - managing huge pop success whilst refusing to be the ‘body’ behind the voice.  She feels like a great example of an artist in control  - brave enough to shift the focus away from her personal physicality.

But we can’t deny that we’re in an aesthetically obsessed industry, and people working in film and moving image are collectively trying to make something that looks as beautiful as it possibly can.  We probably just need to redefine what that idea of beauty actually is.

Juliette Larthe: YES

LK: Not particularily.  Artists in general seem to be much more enthralled to the needs of the marketing machinery…  and sex sells.  So when the label says pout…

NM: There are just so many more videos being made nowadays it's tricky to compare music video trends of the past and present. I should think it's probably quite similar as it would all depend on the artist in question. The more 'cookie cutter' artists that have less involvement in the making of the music and take a back seat in the way they are portrayed visually would and will have less  interest in controlling their video content. 

• Powerful female artists are still making raunchy music videos. So is something like Nicki Minaj's Anaconda an expression of the artist, a cynical exercise to use sex to boost YouTube views/sell music - or somewhere in between?

Caroline Clayton: This Noisey article has an interesting take on this question:

Whilst videos from artists like Nicki, Iggy, Rhianna and other female hip hop / pop artists might be considered damaging to women I lean towards the stance that actually all of these women are empowered and in control of their own lives, creativity and sexuality. Whilst they are overtly using their sexuality they are using it on their own terms which, love it or hate it, is a strong form of feminism. 

Danielle Hinde: Anaconda isn’t exactly my jam but Nicki is an undeniably unique artist.  She’s flipping the script a bit and taking ownership of her sexuality in a very aggressive way, and she is a grown ass woman and making all those decisions by herself.  I’d guess she sees her work as empowering women and dominant in a very male-driven hip-hop world.  Beyonce is more my type of a strong female artist…her videos are insanely sexual but in a powerfully provocative yet subtle way.  Even women get inspired in their own sexuality watching her perform.

LK: I don’t think it’s cynical at all.  I think it’s quite upfront.  I personally love/hate that video, it makes me smile even though technically it’s pretty grim. I think you’ve created a spurious line, Nicki Minaj is in your face and doesn’t give a fuck and I for one love that.

NM: Both I think. Audiences are smarter than we sometimes give them credit for. They can sniff out artists that are simply operating in the 'sex sells' agenda - and call them out on it. 

However, using sex to boost views or sales was there from the very dawn of music videos. This is probably part of the reason they exist in the first place. Madonna is a good example of an artist that was around right at the start of music videos and understood this. Her sexuality was a major part of her artistic expression, on TV and on stage. She cleverly used that to her advantage.

• Is it actually desirable to curtail dance and pop music videos featuring women in bikinis, or skimpy clothing, acting as eye candy for the (male) viewer?

Fran Broadhurst: I think the answer is less about trying to censor, and more about presenting an alternative.  It strikes me that the only real way to bring change is to create difference - let’s redress the balance with something new.  Censorship will often make things more appealing and more illicit, which could be a slippery slope.  I think we’d naturally curtail the amount of skimpy bikini videos just by offering people something else.

Kim Jarrett: Over the past two decades [that I’ve been alive anyway!] that type of video has become a genre in itself so something must be working and still be appealing to the masses! But from a personal perspective I am getting increasingly bored of that visual and don’t particularly find it very innovative. These types of videos (and by that I mean your generic fun in the sun videos or club party videos) aren’t profiling ‘women’ on the whole, they genuinely only profile one type of woman. Skinny, Caucasian women skimpily clothed. Or conversely you have a stereotypical American urban video and the women featured are generally Black / Latino. These videos appeal and relate to a very narrow demographic of audience and that’s a bigger conversation to be had.

Danielle Hinde: I came up by the way of the music video dancer world so it’d be hypocritical of me to say we need to 100% get rid of those types of visuals.  I aspired and trained to be one of those dancers.  I’m not exactly a fan of the strip club fantasy music video where it’s a little too turnt up and the artist is always flanked by writhing naked chicks but I’m sure that’s a dying fad with a limited audience.  From the beginning of time, women have been sexualized and will continue to be so, I imagine.  Women are beautiful and should be celebrated, but how we celebrate women is more the issue than anything.  There have been some changes to be more respectful to women like we’re not allowed to shoot a truncated body (for broadcast) but other than that, no limitations have been set.  I’m not one for censorship, but I do feel strongly that women should be in control of their own bodies and decisions without feeling like the only way they’ll have worth is if they turn dudes on.  That’s when it’s not sexy anymore.

LK: Why only the male viewer?  Women love to look at women too, even heteronormative women.

Juliette Larthe: NO!!

NM: I don't really see the biggest problem being how much flesh is on show. I have relaxed my opinions a little, I've probably become immune to it and now I don't mind tits and arse (within reason!) as long as women are not portrayed as giggly, vacuous idiots that are simply present to make the men look more powerful. I think people find it harder to identify anti-feminist material if it's not bare flesh though - the other stuff is much more subtle and I guess mirrors day to day life more and so we just accept it.

• Do you think, for example, the Lily Allen video for Hard Out Here had an impact on awareness of feminist issues?

Kim Jarrett: ‘Hard Out Here’ was clever as it poked fun at previous videos that were seen to exploit certain music video devices, so it definitely raised a few questions cleverly.

Juliette Larthe: (In response to this question as well as the question relating to Nicki Minaj and the question below regarding white male dominance of the industry…)

The racially coded content of this questionnaire is illustrative of how the music industry has misinterpreted the main facets of feminism, in particular the need for radical intersectionality of race and class. For example white women using black women’s bodies as silent props in videos is not feminist, and Lily Allen’s video is an example of anti-black feminism and racism. In this video Lily Allen pathologises and fetishizes black women’s bodies and uses varied racist motifs in her quest to draw attention to the struggles of women in the industry. Any basic feminist message is completely eroded by the racist content and Allen discredited herself further when she dismissed the objections of a myriad of black voices and refused to address the problematic content of her video. It is clear from the way she is positioned above the women of colour in her video and how they are reduced to hyper sexualized mute bodies that the only women Allen includes in her feminism is privileged white women.

 It is surprising that Lily Allen and Nicki Minaj are mentioned on the opposite sides of the feminist debate, when a quick google search of “Lily Allen feminism’ and ‘Nicki Minaj feminism’ would show you that most informed cultural critics are celebrating Nicki’s feminism and criticizing Lily’s anti-black video. It is particularly troubling and indicative of the racism of the music industry that Hard Out Here is used to illustrate feminism, when the backlash against it from Black feminists and intersectional feminists was loud and widespread. It shows the continued marginalization of women of colour from both the music industry and mainstream cultural critique.

Nicki Minaj, on the other hand, can be seen as defiantly feminist, and intersectional. Many cultural critics have lauded Anaconda as a feminist anthem, and its detractors fall into the tired racist trope of fearing black female sexuality. In Anaconda, Nicki Minaj flips the Sir Mix-a-Lot standard of women’s body parts only being valuable when they please men on its head, and the lyrics are a battle cry for women to reclaim the power endowed on their bodies by the male gaze of a patriarchal society. In the video she builds on this and, shocker, does it without the racist oppression of women of colour. That lap dance is not about Drake’s pleasure, as seen by his ‘hover’ hand. He is not allowed to touch Nicki, this is about her pleasure and her reclamation of the black female body as a site of self-pleasure and self-desire.  

It is also distressing that Beyonce is not mentioned in the correspondence, despite her performance against a banner with ‘FEMINIST’ emblazoned on it. Are we as an industry still perpetuating anti-blackness, even in the wake of Ferguson, Baltimore and the Black Lives Matter campaign?

LK: It’s part of the bigger picture, it’s great that she expressed herself and it felt as if she didn’t hold back anything

• We’ve had the movie version of Fifty Shades of Grey in the past few months. Is there any sign of female-led erotica emerging in music videos?

LK: I dunno about you lot, but I don’t think music video is the best place to go for erotica…….

NM: Hmm good question. It's definitely happening more and more in cinema - there's Peter Strickland's new film - The Duke of Burgundy about lesbian s&m (which I haven't seen yet). I'm sure music videos will follow suit if they haven't started to already. 

• The figures suggest that the music and music video industry is still the preserve of men (white middle class ones mainly). Do you feel that’s an important issue? Are things changing for the better in terms of the composition of the music industry?

Kim Jarrett: This is definitely something that needs to be addressed. There’s not enough outreach to people from different backgrounds, cultures and classes. Unfortunately I don’t think things are changing anytime soon, but I really hope it does!

Danielle Hinde: I think it’s a very important issue but one that is being addressed more as women are speaking up and calling people out.  Rose McGowan speaking out recently about a sexist casting notice is a perfect example.   At least the conversation is being had but it will take women like that to keep it going.  It was an incredible challenge coming up in this game as a woman and especially running a production company.  Female producers/directors get to hear things on set from male crew like “Smile!”  Would you tell a male producer/director to smile?  We also get called “sweetie” and other condescending pet names.  That’s all the laughable stuff though, I’m not even going to go into the gnarly details of what I had to put up with as a young woman in this industry but it’s made me stronger and hopefully helped make it a bit easier on the women coming up now.

Fran Broadhurst: I feel encouraged by the current climate and the way things are going.  From my experience, there is support out there for women in the industry, and on a day-to-day level, I don’t feel outnumbered by my male counterparts - there’s almost always a good balance of men to women on any project I’m involved in.  Perhaps the only surprising battle for me, is feeling the same entitlement to be creative - there’s often an assumption when I meet new people that I’m a producer, not director, which is something deep rooted I think in the perception of women first and foremost as ‘organisers’ over ‘creatives’ - that’s something I’d like to see change.

LK: Its up to us to take over, men won’t give it up, why would/should they?

• Do you feel that more female music video makers have emerged in the past two years – or that there are signs that more female directors, etc will emerge in the future?

Caroline Clayton: I feel hugely positive about women's roles within music video - it's come a long way in recent years. There are loads of excellent female directors coming through at the moment. 

Historically I feel like female directors were only asked to make girl band videos but directors like Lucy Luscombe, Kate Moross, Georgia Hudson, Lucy Therniak, Natalia Stuyk, De La Muerte all make great non-derogatory, often non-female led videos. Also, props to Carly Cussen who made it starting out in the hugely male dominated Grime music genre - I don't think that would have happened a few years ago! 

One of the other really heartening things is seeing female DOP's, camera AC's, lighting dept and DIT's. There are more and more females coming through in these massively male dominated areas - a recent very positive shift. 

Kim Jarrett: There are definitely more female directors making a name for themselves, but still only a select few at the very top of their game as house hold names. From my line of work however, I don’t see the music vid industry being particularly selective and only choosing just men for the job. If you’re a talented director regardless of your sex, that will shine through and take precedence. In a few instances I have been asked for female directors to pitch only as they would get along better with their artists rather than a male director, a slight discrimination against men! There are a lot of music video directors and a high percentage of them are men, but they are just as talented and creative as female directors; female directors are unfortunately by statistic outnumbered.

Danielle Hinde: I definitely feel like there is a massive influx of music video directors in general these days, more than ever actually.  Men still dominate the industry but women are finding their place and will catch up soon once provided more opportunities.  There are a lot of very strong female directors paving the way for the next generation like my girls, Emily Kai Bock, Mimi Cave and Claire Carre.   When I started in this industry watching Diane Martel and Sanaa Hamri make million dollar videos for massive artists like Jay Z and Timberlake, there were barely any women directing at the time, so I respect what they did for the rest of us.  Do I wish there were more female directors?  Every day.  I am constantly seeking out female directors so my roster can be a bit more balanced and I love supporting my fellow ladies.  The truth is there just aren't as many female directors out there, something I might argue is the result of the way we are often raised and encouraged differently than boys.  Women need to have the confidence that they can do this gig too, despite the fact that they have a disproportionately high volume of people telling them that they can’t. It’s harder for us, for sure, but the fear of failure shouldn’t stop anyone from trying.  BUT, a pet peeve of mine is female filmmakers complaining they don’t ever get a chance purely because they’re women without actually doing the work.  I studied, practiced, learned from mentors and practically killed myself to have a career in this business. You still have to be a good director/producer, doesn’t matter what sex you are.  It doesn’t always mean immediate success for women, but no one can ever stay we didn’t try!

Fran Broadhurst: I’m not sure if there are more of us now, or if we’re just getting the spotlight a bit more, but the imbalance of women in the industry is definitely giving the issue a voice and allowing more female directors to come forwards and be promoted.

The music video directors I was inspired by growing up - the people interviewed and written about - were largely all men.  That’s hopefully no longer the case for young female directors starting out who are seeking role models to aspire to, and it can only encourage more of the same.  The future feels optimistic to me.

Juliette Larthe: YES like female artists.

LK: Yes, I think there are.  What always amazes me is how many deeply average male video directors there are out there compared to average women. The male ego seems to be more robust somehow, the chicks I know who are directing are all fucking REALLY talented…

NM: I’m quite disappointed with the % of female directors. I don’t reckon there are more that have emerged, if so then it is probably quite marginal. There are simply not enough!

• If you regard the situation as in need of change, what suggestions do you have to make that change happen?

Danielle Hinde: It’s not going to be something that changes overnight, but the perception needs to change that women are these delicate little flowers who only make films about a woman running down the beach in flowing clothes with sun flares and a soft filter.  We can get dirty, funny and dark like the boys can.  Female comedians like Amy Schumer and Broad City are helping forge the present zeitgeist in that regard. Just because we have a vagina doesn’t mean we can’t tell a joke or get weird.

Fran Broadhurst: I think we are all trying to change it – the kind of sexism I encounter in the industry is never radical or intended, but something more deeply ingrained - too subtle sometimes to put your finger on.  That’s the most dangerous part - the tiny things we’re all guilty of, that perhaps stop women shouting that bit louder, or being that bit more stubborn.  I feel sure things are changing though, and the richer the alternatives are, the better off we’ll be.  Eventually, there will be a better balance, we just need to keep creating.

• Any other comments you wish to make on the issue of feminism and female roles in music videos?

Kim Jarrett: I think it’s very important to note that we live in a very privileged first world country - majority speaking I would say women featuring in music videos have the right to say yes or no on their involvement. Some women love their bodies and want to showcase them. Those models in ‘Blurred Lines’ for example all had a choice on whether to partake or not. I recently read that, the models in fact did say no first off and then had some meetings in which they all changed their minds! If enough people begin to say ‘no’ on mass, then perhaps we can collectively start to change the pre-conceptions and sexualization of women in videos.

Juliette Larthe: 1. Feminism is a range of movements and ideologies that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve equal political, economic, cultural, personal, and social rights for women. This includes seeking to establish equal opportunities for women in education and employment within the music video industry.

LK: Yes, my comment is that this survey doesn’t touch on the most IMPORTANT issue in feminism and that is equal pay. 

In the 1970s in the USA, the laws were passed that means that men and women must be paid the same and yet we’re still only earning 77c to the dollar.  (sorry its in dollars, I don’t have the UK stats to hand….)

With crew, at least there are union rules to ensure that gender is irrelevant to pay, but would be fascinating to me to know the numbers comparing the boys wages to the girls wages. 


Promonews - 15th July 2015

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